Geography of Chenani
Area and Location of Chenani
The state of Jammu & Kashmir is located in the North-western part of Indian Republic and one of the towns of district Udhampur is Chenani. Chenani and holds an almost central position in the state due to its geographical location. The geographical location of of the Tehsil of Chenani is between co-ordinates 32 55' 38” N to 32 59' 48” N and 75 15' 59” E to 75 26' 45” E and elevation ranges from 772m to 2758m from mean sea level.
Physiography of Chenani
The state of J&K region consists of four great mountain ranges of Himalayas, which are as follows Ladakh, Karakoram, Pirpanjal and Zanskar. in the areas between these ranges lies the longitudinal valleys of Gilgit, Shyok, Indus and Jhelum. when we go down South of Pirpanjal is situated the Shivalik range which is comparatively much lower in elevation and known as Jammu hills. And on the foothills of these ranges lies the town of Chenani. Shivalik hills predominantly occupy the Jammu region and are majorly composed of sandstones, shales and conglomerates.
Climate of Chenani
Heavy downpour is also experienced with heavy rainfall during August & September months. The annual rainfall is 130 cm mainly in monsoons and winters due to Western disturbances.
Tehsil Chenani rarely experiences snow while there may be snow in upper reaches. However due to changing climate patterns snowfall has been experienced in some years. In the year 2011 it snowed and there was about 15 cm snow. Heavy hailstorms are a common feature and are experienced with huge piles of hail in months of February and March.
Land Uses in Chenani
Land in Chenani has been used in a major way for construction of Chenani Nashri Tunnel which is considered as India's longest tunnel connecting major parts and making journey more convenient for people.
A major part of land is under the forest coverings.the forests are wonderful places to provide habitat for the animals and some amazing floral species is also seen. 13% area is under forest and vegetation of fruit trees takes place. Whereas the remaining area is either barren or unculturable/culturable waste land.about 4 % area is under cultivation.
The cultivated area is under irrigation and rest of the land gets its water supply through rain. Canal is another major source of irrigation. The process of Crop rotations is also practiced in the region.
Demographic Parameters in Chenani
According to the census , the population of town of Chenani is 51386 of which 24524 are females and 26861 are the males. It is very low in comparison to other towns.The 55% of the population are the males of the region.
Chenani has an average literacy rate of 80%, higher than the Indian national average of 59.5%; with male literacy going up to 85% and female literacy touching 73%. The population which is under 6 years of age comprises 6% of the population. The air quality in & around Chenani until now has survived the test of time as vehicular traffic and industrial units which add to the atmospheric pollution, is very minimalistic in Chenani due to absence of any major industries.
Socio-Economic Conditions of Chenani
For the socio-economic development of any society, state or country, all socio-economic aspects need to be taken into consideration while drawing any future plan or a policy for betterment of the state.These all factors must reflect the strength and limitation of socio-economic details which include demographic profile, key ethnic groups, main occupations, agriculture & allied activity scenario, energy scenario and state’s economy.
Key Ethnic Groups in Chenani
Different ethnic groups have different life styles and their intimate relationship with different biodiversity components is also distinct. Some of the ethnic groups present in Jammu’s Chenani town are mentioned as follows:
Ethnic Groups of Chenani
They belong to the Aryan race and speak Dogri language. A substantial section of Dogras embraced Islam during 16th & 17th centuries and at the time of partition most of the Dogra Muslims migrated to Pakistan. Dogras are considered as people with short stature and have high shoulders. There is a tradition of worshipping trees like Peepal, Tulsi, Bil-pattri and animals like cows, serpents, etc in the dogra religion.
GujjarsGujjars are cattle rearing pastoral nomads who migrated from Rajasthan, Gujarat & Kathiawad at the time of occurrence of droughts in those places in the 6th & 7th century. The section of migratory tribes called Gujjars moved to the Punjab and then to various areas of J&K like Chenani. They move with their cattle herds on a seasonal basis but many of them have now started settling on permanent basis. They have good indigenous knowledge pertaining to different elements of Biodiversity.
Water Bodies in Chenani
Outer plains of the state of Jammu are full of small seasonal streams which carry water only during rainy season and remain dry for most part of the year. The most important river of the region is the Tawi River. It is of perennial in nature but flow in water varies from season to season. Its catchment areas rise to an elevation of 4263 meters (for Tawi). Tawi rises from Ratan range behind Rajouri and joins Chenab in the plains.
The topography of Outer hills of Shivaliks is very regular and gentle in character. The hills are formed of young tertiary rocks & never reach a height of more than 1200 meters. In this region, numerous small longitudinal valleys called Duns are found.
In Chenani region, spring is known by the term Baoli or Baan located amidst trees. These are present everywhere in the village. Many a times, these are used as places to perform religious ceremonies. They are also decorated with various kinds of sculptures associated with Gods and Goddesses.
Flora and Fauna in Chenani
To every place flora and fauna are an important part of the ecosystem.here we discuss about the flora and fauna patterns in Chenani.
A large part of the town is mainly covered with forests. A lot of trees are lined along the roads of Chenani providing breathtakingly refreshing views. The different types of trees are found at different altitudes. The major trees that dominate the region are deodar trees.
These trees are important and are regarded as the most cold tolerant trees. They are known for their high durability and resistance. We see acorns lying everywhere, thereby, hinting presence of oak trees in the region. These are very tall trees and look beautiful with distinct leaf shapes. The fruit of oak tree though is poisonous. Apart from oak trees Bunj forests are also lined alongside the Chenani roads. A lot of horticultural activities are carried out in the region which includes growing of lots of fruits as mango, citrus, litchi, grapes etc.
Due to harsh and severe weather conditions the fauna population is also very less. The hunting and killing of animal is totally banned in the town.
Major fauna species which can be seen and spotted are the leopards,snow leopards, wild dogs, jackals, black bears, rhesus monkey, and wild boars amongst many.
The trees get these chirpy by the cacophonous sounds made by monal pheasants, mynas, wood peckers. The blue jay, grey partridges and the migratory ducks provide a treat to the eyes of nature lovers.
The poisonous and non poisonous snakes occur in the region along with other reptiles.The fishes also do occur in the dis-tributaries of the river.
The geography of a place is one of the most important factors which governs the demography and other major factors needed for survival in a city.
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