Geography of Chenani

Geographical Features of ChenaniChenani is located in the hilly and mountainous regions of Jammu. The complete geographical profile of a place basically comprise of all the factors which talk about the location and the area along with its elevation,the various water bodies, the flora and the fauna and the changing patterns in living of people. The climatic conditions of a place are major factors which determine the flora, fauna and living patterns of all humans alike.

Area and Location of Chenani

The state of Jammu & Kashmir is located in the North-western part of Indian Republic and one of the towns of district Udhampur is Chenani. Chenani and holds an almost central position in the state due to its geographical location. The geographical location of of the Tehsil of Chenani is between co-ordinates 32 55' 38” N to 32 59' 48” N and 75 15' 59” E to 75 26' 45” E and elevation ranges from 772m to 2758m from mean sea level.

Physiography of Chenani

Physiography of ChenaniThe state of J&K region consists of four great mountain ranges of Himalayas, which are as follows Ladakh, Karakoram, Pirpanjal and Zanskar. in the areas between these ranges lies the longitudinal valleys of Gilgit, Shyok, Indus and Jhelum. when we go down South of Pirpanjal is situated the Shivalik range which is comparatively much lower in elevation and known as Jammu hills. And on the foothills of these ranges lies the town of Chenani. Shivalik hills predominantly occupy the Jammu region and are majorly composed of sandstones, shales and conglomerates.

Foot-hill plains and valleys are formed from alluvium deposits. The town of Chenani is nestled in the mountainous and hilly areas of Jammu which shares international boundaries with Pakistan in the west, Chinese autonomous regions of Xinjiang in the North and Tibet to the North East. This town is connected to the rest of the country through a 30 Km long boundary with Punjab and 300 km long boundary with Himachal Pradesh. The town differs in terms of climate, flora, topography, fauna, religious, ethnic groups and cultural traditions.

Climate of Chenani

Climate in Chenani

The climate of Chenani varies from sub-tropical type. The climate of Chenani is characterized by moderate summers. The temperatures in season of summers do not cross the 40 degrees point while winters generally see mercury dipping to 2 degrees or even sometimes to zero degrees.

Heavy downpour is also experienced with heavy rainfall during August & September months. The annual rainfall is 130 cm mainly in monsoons and winters due to Western disturbances.

Tehsil Chenani rarely experiences snow while there may be snow in upper reaches. However due to changing climate patterns snowfall has been experienced in some years. In the year 2011 it snowed and there was about 15 cm snow. Heavy hailstorms are a common feature and are experienced with huge piles of hail in months of  February and March.

Land Uses in Chenani

Land Use in ChenaniLand in Chenani has been used in a major way for construction of Chenani Nashri Tunnel which is considered as India's longest tunnel connecting major parts and making journey more convenient for people.

A major part of land is under the forest coverings.the forests are wonderful places to provide habitat for the animals and some amazing floral species is also seen. 13% area is under forest and vegetation of fruit trees takes place. Whereas the remaining area is either barren or unculturable/culturable waste land.about 4 % area is under cultivation.

The major crops which are grown in the region are Maize and rice with 53% of major part of cropped area under them it is followed by wheat (24%), oil seeds (6.7%) and pulses (3.9%). The remaining area is under barley, bajra and other cereal crops.

The cultivated area is under irrigation and rest of the land gets its water supply through rain. Canal is another major source of irrigation. The process of Crop rotations is also practiced in the region.

Demographic Parameters in Chenani

Demography in Chenani

By and large, the state of Jammu & Kashmir is hilly. People here face many difficulties to survive in a normal way.The dense population is present only in some of the major cities & towns.

According to the census , the population of town of Chenani is 51386 of which 24524 are females and 26861 are the males. It is very low in comparison to other towns.The 55% of the population are the males of the region.

Chenani has an average literacy rate of 80%, higher than the Indian national average of 59.5%; with male literacy going up to 85% and female literacy touching 73%. The population which is under 6 years of age comprises 6% of the population. The air quality in & around Chenani until now has survived the test of time as vehicular traffic and industrial units which add to the atmospheric pollution, is very minimalistic in Chenani due to absence of any major industries.

Socio-Economic Conditions of Chenani

For the socio-economic development of any society, state or country, all socio-economic aspects need to be taken into consideration while drawing any future plan or a policy for betterment of the state.These all factors must reflect the strength and limitation of socio-economic details which include demographic profile, key ethnic groups, main occupations, agriculture & allied activity scenario, energy scenario and state’s economy.

Key Ethnic Groups in Chenani

Different ethnic groups have different life styles and their intimate relationship with different biodiversity components is also distinct. Some of the ethnic groups present in Jammu’s Chenani town are mentioned as follows:

Ethnic Groups of Chenani

Dogras

Ethnic Groups in ChenaniThose inhabitants of Chenani region who speak Dogri Language and have typical Dogra religious and cultural traditions are called Dogras. Their main occupation is agriculture, sheep and animal husbandry. This is a distinctive ethnic group.

They belong to the Aryan race and speak Dogri language. A substantial section of Dogras embraced Islam during 16th & 17th centuries and at the time of partition most of the Dogra Muslims migrated to Pakistan. Dogras are considered as people with short stature and have high shoulders. There is a tradition of worshipping trees like Peepal, Tulsi, Bil-pattri and animals like cows, serpents, etc in the dogra religion.

Gujjars

Gujjars are cattle rearing pastoral nomads who migrated from Rajasthan, Gujarat & Kathiawad at the time of occurrence of droughts in those places in the 6th & 7th century. The section of migratory tribes called Gujjars moved to the Punjab and then to various areas of J&K like Chenani. They move with their cattle herds on a seasonal basis but many of them have now started settling on permanent basis. They have good indigenous knowledge pertaining to different elements of Biodiversity.

Water Bodies in Chenani

Water Use in Chenani

Broad longitudinal valleys form a major and most important feature of the topography of this region. In this region lies the semi-arid tract where water scarcity is the major problem of the people. The Government has built a large number of tube wells and wells which not only supply drinking water but also water for irrigation. Traditional village ponds also supplement the water requirements. Two important canals, one from river Tawi and another from river Ravi have been constructed by the Government to provide irrigation facilities in the region.

Outer plains of the state of Jammu are full of small seasonal streams which carry water only during rainy season and remain dry for most part of the year. The most important river of the region is the Tawi River. It is of perennial in nature but flow in water varies from season to season. Its catchment areas rise to an elevation of 4263 meters (for Tawi). Tawi rises from Ratan range behind Rajouri and joins Chenab in the plains.

The topography of Outer hills of Shivaliks is very regular and gentle in character. The hills are formed of young tertiary rocks & never reach a height of more than 1200 meters. In this region, numerous small longitudinal valleys called Duns are found.

In Chenani region, spring is known by the term Baoli or Baan located amidst trees. These are present everywhere in the village. Many a times, these are used as places to perform religious ceremonies. They are also decorated with various kinds of sculptures associated with Gods and Goddesses.

Flora and Fauna in Chenani

To every place flora and fauna are an important part of the ecosystem.here we discuss about the flora and fauna patterns in Chenani.

The Flora

Flora in ChenaniThe floral patterns of Chenani are in a great way influenced by the hilly surroundings and climatic conditions. As it’s situated on hilly terrain the flora and fauna of the region too is marked by characteristic features.

A large part of the town is mainly covered with forests. A lot of trees are lined along the roads of Chenani providing breathtakingly refreshing views. The different types of trees are found at different altitudes. The major trees that dominate the region are deodar trees.

These trees are important and are regarded as the most cold tolerant trees. They are known for their high durability and resistance. We see acorns lying everywhere, thereby, hinting presence of oak trees in the region. These are very tall trees and look beautiful with distinct leaf shapes. The fruit of oak tree though is poisonous. Apart from oak trees Bunj forests are also lined alongside the Chenani roads. A lot of horticultural activities are carried out in the region which includes growing of lots of fruits as mango, citrus, litchi, grapes etc.

The Fauna

The Fauna in Chenani
Due to harsh and severe weather conditions the fauna population is also very less. The hunting and killing of animal is totally banned in the town.

Major fauna species which can be seen and spotted are the leopards,snow leopards, wild dogs, jackals, black bears, rhesus monkey, and wild boars amongst many.

The trees get these chirpy by the cacophonous sounds made by monal pheasants, mynas, wood peckers. The blue jay, grey partridges and the migratory ducks provide a treat to the eyes of nature lovers.

The poisonous and non poisonous snakes occur in the region along with other reptiles.The fishes also do occur in the dis-tributaries of the river.

The geography of a place is one of the most important factors which governs the demography and other major factors needed for survival in a city.

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